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Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

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JoshMain
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Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:49 am

Drug Facts

Alcohol:

What is alcohol?

Alcohol is a depressant drug, which means it slows down the messages travelling between the brain and the body.1

Other names

Booze, grog, piss, liquor, charge, nip.

Effects of alcohol

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Alcohol affects everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount drunk
The strength of the drink
You may experience:

Feeling relaxed
Trouble concentrating
Slower reflexes
Increased confidence
Feeling happier or sadder, depending on your mood1,2
If you consume a lot of alcohol, you might experience:

Confusion
Blurred vision
Clumsiness
Memory loss
Nausea, vomiting
Passing out
Coma
Death1,2,3


Hangovers

The following day, you may have a hangover, which is:

Headache
Diarrhoea and nausea
Tiredness and trembling
Increased heart rate and blood pressure
Dry mouth and eyes
Trouble concentrating
Anxiety
Restless sleep4,5
Sobering up

To sober up takes time. The liver gets rid of about one standard drink an hour. Sweating it out with exercise, cold showers, coffee, fresh air or vomiting will not speed up the process. They may ease the symptoms, but they do not remove alcohol from the bloodstream any faster. This means it may not be safe to drive or work the following day.4,5

Long term effects

Regular use of alcohol may eventually cause:

Regular colds or flu
Difficulty getting an erection
Depression
Poor memory and brain damage
Difficulty having children
Liver disease
Cancer
High blood pressure and heart disease
Needing to drink more to get the same effect
Dependence on alcohol
Financial, work and social problems5
Drinking alcohol with other drugs

The effects of drinking and taking other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Alcohol + cannabis: nausea, vomiting, panic, anxiety and paranoia.

Alcohol + energy drinks (with caffeine), ice, speed or ecstasy: more risky behaviour, body under great stress, overdose more likely.

Alcohol + GHB or benzodiazepines: decreased heart rate, overdose more likely.5

Withdrawal

Giving up alcohol after drinking it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Please seek advice from a health professional.

Withdrawal symptoms usually start about 4 to 12 hours after the last drink and can last for about 4 to 5 days. These symptoms can include:

Sweating
Tremors
Nausea
Anxiety, irritability, difficulty sleeping
Seizures or fits
Delusions and hallucinations
Death5


Amphetamines:

What are amphetamines?

Amphetamines are stimulant drugs, which means they speed up the messages travelling between the brain and the body.1

Some types of amphetamines are legally prescribed by doctors to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy (where a person has an uncontrollable urge to sleep). Other types of amphetamines such as speed are produced and sold illegally. The more potent form, crystal methamphetamine (ice), is covered on a different page.1

What do they look like?

The appearance of amphetamines varies. These drugs may be in the form of a powder, tablets, crystals and capsules. They may be packaged in ‘foils’ (aluminium foil), plastic bags or small balloons when sold illegally.2

Amphetamine powder can range in colour from white through to brown, sometimes it may have traces of grey or pink. It has a strong smell and bitter taste. Amphetamine capsules and tablets vary considerably in size and colour.1

Illegally produced amphetamines can be a mix of drugs, binding agents, caffeine and sugar. New psychoactive substances may also be added.1

Slang names

Speed, fast, up, uppers, louee, goey, whiz.2

How are they used?

Amphetamines are generally swallowed, injected or smoked. They are also snorted.2


Effects of amphetamines

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Amphetamines affect everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch with illegally produced drugs)
You might feel the effects of amphetamines immediately (if injected or smoked) or within 30 minutes (if snorted or swallowed).

You might experience:

Happiness and confidence
Talking more and feeling energetic
Repeating simple things like itching and scratching
Large pupils and dry mouth
Fast heart beat and breathing
Teeth grinding
Reduced appetite
Excessive sweating
Increased sex drive1,2
Snorting amphetamines can damage the nasal passage and cause nose bleeds.

Injecting amphetamines and sharing needles can increase the risk of:

Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
HIV/AIDS
Tetanus
Overdose

If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you could overdose. If you have any of the following symptoms, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Racing heartbeat
Fits
Passing out
Stroke, heart attack and death1,2
Find out more about overdose
Coming down

In the 2 to 4 days after amphetamine use, you may be experience:

Restless sleep and exhaustion
Headaches
Dizziness and blurred vision
Paranoia, hallucinations and confusion
Irritability, mood swings and depression3
Using a depressant drug such as alcohol, benzodiazepines or cannabis to help with the come down effects may result in a cycle of dependence on both types of drugs.

Long-term effects

Regular use of amphetamines may eventually cause:

Reduced appetite and extreme weight loss
Restless sleep
Dry mouth and dental problems
Regular colds and flu
Trouble concentrating
Difficulty breathing
Muscle stiffness
Anxiety and paranoia
Depression
Heart and kidney problems
Increased risk of stroke
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on amphetamines
Financial, work and social problems1,2,3
Amphetamine psychosis

High doses and frequent heavy use can also create an ‘amphetamine psychosis’, characterised by paranoid delusions, hallucinations and out of character aggressive or violent behaviour. These symptoms usually disappear a few days after the person stops using amphetamines.1,2

Mixing amphetamines with other drugs

The effects of taking amphetamines with other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Amphetamines + some antidepressants: elevated blood pressure, which can lead to irregular heartbeat, heart failure and stroke.4

Amphetamines + alcohol, cannabis or benzodiazepines: the body is placed under a high degree of stress as it attempts to deal with the conflicting effects of both types of drugs, which can lead to an overdose.5

Withdrawal

Giving up amphetamines after using them for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without them. Withdrawal symptoms should settle down after a week and will mostly disappear after a month. Symptoms include:

Cravings for amphetamines
Increased appetite
Confusion and irritability
Aches and pains
Exhaustion
Restless sleep and nightmares
Anxiety, depression and paranoia2
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JoshMain
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Posts : 87
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Age : 22
Location : Gold Coast

Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:50 am

Benzodiazepines:

What are benzodiazepines?

Benzodiazepines (pronounced ben-zoh-die-AZ-a-peens) are depressant drugs. This means that they slow down the activity of the central nervous system and the messages travelling between the brain and the body. They do not necessarily make a person feel depressed. Other depressants include alcohol, cannabis and heroin.

Benzodiazepines, also known as minor tranquilizers, are most commonly prescribed by doctors to relieve stress and anxiety and to help people sleep. However, there is increasing concern among medical professionals about the risks of using these drugs, particularly when they are used for a long time.

Some people use benzodiazepines illegally to get high or to help with the ‘come down’ effects of stimulants such as amphetamines or cocaine.

Types of benzodiazepines

There are three types of benzodiazepines: long, intermediate and short acting. Short-acting benzodiazepines have stronger withdrawal or ‘come down’ effects and can be more addictive than long-acting ones.1

Benzodiazepines are known by their chemical (generic) name or their brand name. In each case the drug is exactly the same – it’s just made by a different company. Some common benzodiazepines are:

Pharmaceutical names
Generic name Brand name Type
diazepam Ducene®️, Valium®️ Long-acting
oxazepam Alepam®️, Murelax®️, Serepax®️ Short-acting
nitrazepam Alodorm®️, Mogadon®️ Intermediate-acting
temazepam Euhypnos®️, Normison®️ Short-acting
alprazolam Xanax®️, Kalma®️, Alprax®️ Short-acting
Adapted from: Brands B, Sproule B & Marshman J. (eds) (1998) Drugs & Drug Abuse (3rd ed.) Ontario: Addiction Research Foundation.


Slang names

Benzos, tranx, sleepers, downers, pills, xannies, serras (Serepax®️), moggies (Mogadon®️), normies (Normison®️)

How are they used?

Benzodiazepines are usually swallowed. Some people also inject them.

Effects of benzodiazepines

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Benzodiazepines affect everyone differently, but the effects may include:

Depression
Confusion
Feelings of isolation or euphoria
Impaired thinking and memory loss
Headache
Drowsiness, sleepiness and fatigue
Dry mouth
Slurred speech or stuttering
Double or blurred vision
Impaired coordination, dizziness and tremors
Nausea and loss of appetite
Diarrhoea or constipation1
Injecting benzodiazepines may also cause:

Vein damage and scarring
Infection, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and AIDS
Deep vein thrombosis and clots causing loss of limbs, damage to organs, stroke and possibly death
Injecting drugs repeatedly and sharing injecting equipment with other people increases the risk of experiencing these effects.2

Overdose

If you take a large amount, you could overdose. If you have any of the symptoms below, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Over-sedation or sleep
Jitteriness and excitability
Mood swings and aggression
Slow, shallow breathing
Unconsciousness or coma
Death (more likely when taken with another drug such as alcohol)1
Long-term effects

Regular use of benzodiazepines may cause:

Impaired thinking or memory loss
Anxiety and depression
Irritability, paranoia and aggression
Personality change
Weakness, lethargy and lack of motivation
Drowsiness, sleepiness and fatigue
Difficulty sleeping or disturbing dreams
Headaches
Nausea
Skin rashes and weight gain
Addiction
Withdrawal symptoms (see below)1
Using benzodiazepines with other drugs

The effects of taking benzodiazepines with other drugs can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Benzodiazepines + alcohol or opiates (such as heroin): breathing difficulties, an increased risk of overdose and death.
The use of benzodiazepines to help with the come down effects of stimulant drugs (such as amphetamines or ecstasy) may result in a cycle of dependence on both types of drug.

Withdrawal

Giving up benzodiazepines after using them for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without them. This is why it’s important to seek advice from a health professional when planning to stop taking benzodiazepines.

Withdrawal symptoms vary from person to person and are different depending on the type of benzodiazepine being taken. Symptoms can last from a few weeks to a year and can include:

Headaches
Aching or twitching muscles
Dizziness and tremors
Nausea, vomiting, stomach pains
Bizarre dreams, difficulty sleeping, fatigue
Poor concentration
Anxiety and irritability
Altered perception, heightening of senses
Delusions, hallucinations and paranoia
Seizures3


Marijuana:

What is cannabis?

Cannabis is a depressant drug, which means it slows down messages travelling between your brain and body. When large doses of cannabis are taken, it may also produce hallucinogenic effects. The main active chemical in cannabis is THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol).1

Other names

Marijuana, yarndi, pot, weed, hash, dope, gunja, joint, stick, chronic, cone, choof, dabs, dabbing, BHO.

How is it used?

Cannabis is usually smoked or eaten and comes in 3 different forms:

Marijuana − the dried leaves and flowers (buds) of the cannabis plant that are smoked in a joint or a bong. This is the most common form.
Hashish – the dried plant resin that is usually mixed with tobacco and smoked or added to foods and baked; such as cookies and brownies.
Hash oil – liquid that is usually used sparingly (due to high potency) and added to the tip of a joint or cigarette and smoked.1
It takes about an hour to feel the effects of eating cannabis, which means it’s easy to have too much. If it’s smoked, the effects are usually felt straight away.2,3 However, smoking can cause a number of negative side effects, especially later in life.

Cannabis can also come in synthetic form, which may be more harmful than real cannabis.

Cannabis may also be refined into what are known as dabs or dabbing, slang names for concentrated butane hash oil (or BHO), a relatively new method of administering/ingesting cannabis that involves the inhalation of highly concentrated THC.


Effects of cannabis

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Cannabis affects everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug
The effects of cannabis may be felt immediately if smoked, or within an hour or two if eaten and effects may include:

Feeling relaxed and sleepy
Spontaneous laughter and excitement
Increased appetite
Dry mouth
Quiet and reflective mood1
If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you may also experience:

Trouble concentrating
Blurred vision
Clumsiness
Slower reflexes
Bloodshot eyes
Seeing and hearing things that aren’t there
Increased heart rate
Low blood pressure
Mild anxiety and paranoia1,3
Long-term effects

Regular use of cannabis may eventually cause:

Memory loss
Learning difficulties
Mood swings
Regular colds or flu
Reduced sex drive
Difficulty having children
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on cannabis
Financial, work and social problems1,3
Smoking cannabis can also cause:

Sore throat
Asthma
Bronchitis
Cancer (if smoked with tobacco)1,3
Those with a family history of mental illness are more likely to also experience anxiety, depression and psychotic symptoms after using cannabis. Psychotic symptoms include delusions, hallucinations and seeing or hearing things that do not exist or are distorted.

Using cannabis with other drugs

The effects of taking cannabis with other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous.

Cannabis + alcohol: nausea, vomiting, panic, anxiety and paranoia.4

Cannabis is sometimes used to help with the ‘come down’ effects of stimulant drugs, such as ice, speed and ecstasy. However, doing this can cause reduced motivation, poor memory, mental health problems and dependency on both drugs.5

Withdrawal

Giving up cannabis after using it for a long time is challenging, because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms may last for only a week, but sleep may be affected for longer. Symptoms include:

Anxiety
Irritability
Aggressive and angry behaviour
Cravings for cannabis
Loss of appetite and upset stomach
Sweating, chills and tremors
Restless sleep and nightmares6
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JoshMain
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Posts : 87
Join date : 2016-01-30
Age : 22
Location : Gold Coast

Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:51 am

Cocaine:

What is cocaine?

Cocaine is a stimulant drug, which means that it speeds up the messages travelling between the brain and the rest of the body.

Cocaine comes from the leaves of the coca bush (Erythroxylum coca), which is native to South America. The leaf extract is processed to produce 3 different forms of cocaine:

Cocaine hydrochloride: a white, crystalline powder with a bitter, numbing taste. Cocaine hydrochloride is often mixed, or ‘cut’, with other substances such as lactose and glucose, to dilute it before being sold.
Freebase: a white powder that is more pure with less impurity than cocaine hydrochloride.
Crack: crystals ranging in colour from white or cream to transparent with a pink or yellow hue, it may contain impurities.1,2
Other names

C, coke, nose candy, snow, white lady, toot, Charlie, blow, white dust or stardust.

How is it used?

Cocaine hydrochloride is most commonly snorted. It can also be injected, rubbed into the gums, added to drinks or food.1

Freebase and crack cocaine are usually smoked.1

Indigenous people of South America have traditionally chewed the leaves of the coca bush, or brewed them as a tea, for use as a stimulant or appetite suppressant.3


Effects of cocaine

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Cocaine affects everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch)
You may experience:

Happiness and confidence
Talking more
Feeling energetic and alert
Quiet contemplation and rapture
Feeling physically strong and mentally sharp
Reduced appetite
Dry mouth
Enlarged (dilated) pupils
Higher blood pressure and faster heartbeat and breathing (after initial slowing)
Higher body temperature
Increased sex drive
Unpredictable, violent or aggressive behaviour
Indifference to pain2,4
Overdose

If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you could overdose. If you have any of the symptoms below, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Nausea and vomiting
Extreme anxiety
Chest pain
Panic
Extreme agitation and paranoia
Hallucinations
Tremors
Breathing irregularities
Kidney failure
Seizures
Stroke
Heart problems
Coma and death2,8
High doses and frequent heavy use can also cause ‘cocaine psychosis’, characterised by paranoid delusions, hallucinations and out of character aggressive behaviour. These symptoms usually disappear a few days after the person stops using cocaine.4

Injecting cocaine and sharing needles may also cause:

Increased likelihood of overdose
Tetanus
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
HIV/AIDS


Read more about overdose
Coming down

In the days after cocaine use, you may feel:

Tension and anxiety
Depression
Mood swings
Total exhaustion2,5
Long-term effects

Regular use of cocaine may eventually cause:

Insomnia and exhaustion
Depression
Anxiety, paranoia and psychosis
Eating disorders and weight loss
Sexual dysfunction
Hypertension and irregular heartbeat
Sensitivity to light and sound
Hallucinations4,5
Heart disease and death6
Snorting cocaine regularly can also cause:

Runny nose and nose bleeds
Nose infection
A hole in the tissue separating the nostrils
Long term damage to the nasal cavity and sinuses5
Withdrawal

Giving up cocaine after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it.

It’s therefore important to talk to your GP or another health professional before trying to give up.

Phases of withdrawal

Withdrawal symptoms usually start around 1–2 days after last use and can last for approximately 10 weeks – days 4 to 7 will be the worst.

Withdrawal usually happens in 3 phases:

Crash – agitation, depression or anxiety, intense hunger, cocaine cravings, restless sleep, extreme tiredness (experienced in the first few days).
Withdrawal – cocaine cravings, lack of energy, anxiety, angry outbursts and an inability to feel pleasure (can last for up to 10 weeks).
Extinction – intermittent cravings for cocaine (ongoing).7


Codeine:

What is codeine?

Codeine is part of a group of drugs known as opioids. Opioids are depressant drugs, which means they slow down the messages travelling between the brain and the body. Other opioids include opium, heroin, morphine and oxycodone.1

Codeine is used to provide relief from a number of conditions, including:

Mild to moderate pain
Severe pain (when combined with aspirin or paracetamol)
Dry irritating cough
Diarrhoea
Cold and flu (when combined with antihistamines and decongestants)1
Some people misuse codeine by intentionally taking more than the recommended dose to get high, or as an act of self-harm.

Codeine is usually swallowed and comes in different forms, including:

Tablets
Capsules
Suppositories
Soluble powders and tablets
Liquids1
Other names

Codeine may also be known by a brand or trade name. Some common examples are:

Codeines' other names
Generic name Brand names
Aspirin and codeine Aspalgin®️, Codral Cold & Flu Original®️
Ibuprofen and codeine Nurofen Plus®️
Paracetamol and codeine Panadeine Forte®️, Panamax Co®️
Paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine Mersyndol®️ and Mersyndol Forte®️, Panalgesic®️1

Effects of codeine

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk – even medications can produce unwanted side effects. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Codeine affects everyone differently, based on:

The person’s size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
Side effects

The most common side effects of codeine are:

Dizziness
Tiredness
Confusion, difficulty concentrating
Euphoria, restlessness
Blurred vision
Dry mouth
Limbs feeling heavy or muscles feeling stiff
Sweating
Mild allergic rash, itching and hives
Decreased heart rate, palpitations
Stomach-ache, nausea, vomiting, constipation
Difficulty urinating1
These side effects may disappear with continued treatment, but if they persist, speak to a medical practitioner.

Overdose

If the dose is too high, you might overdose. If you experience any of the below symptoms, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000).

Inability to pass urine
Severe constipation and obstructed bowel
Agitation
Cold clammy skin with a bluish tinge
Mental numbness
Very slow, shallow breathing
Hallucinations and sometimes seizures
Coma and death1
Long-term effects of codeine

Regular use of codeine may eventually cause:

Constipation
Reduced sex drive
Irregular periods
Tension and muscle twitches
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on codeine
Financial, work and social problems1,2
Discuss the side effects of long-term use with a medical practitioner.

Using codeine with other drugs

The effects of taking codeine with other drugs, including alcohol, prescription medications and other over-the-counter medicines, are often unpredictable.1

Codeine taken with alcohol can cause mental clouding, reduced coordination and slow breathing.1

Withdrawal

Giving up codeine after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Please seek advice from a medical professional.

Withdrawal symptoms usually start within a few hours after the last dose and become strongest between 48 and 72 hours.3 These symptoms can include:

Cravings for codeine
Dilated pupils
Abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting
Lack of appetite
Runny nose and sneezing
Yawning and difficulty sleeping
Trembling, aching muscles and joints
Goosebumps, fever, chills, sweating
Restlessness, irritability, nervousness, depression1,2
avatar
JoshMain
Founder
Founder

Posts : 87
Join date : 2016-01-30
Age : 22
Location : Gold Coast

Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:51 am

Ecstasy:

What is ecstasy?

Drugs sold as ecstasy may not contain any methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); they can be a mix of amphetamine, paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA), ketamine, NBOMe, methylone or other substances.

Ecstasy is a stimulant drug, which means it speeds up the messages travelling between the brain and body.

Ecstasy contains the drug MDMA. However, many pills sold as ecstasy only have a small amount of MDMA or none at all. Other drugs and ‘fillers’ are often used instead. This makes it hard to know what reactions to expect after taking ecstasy or how bad the side effects will be.

Other names

Eckies, E, XTC, pills, pingers, bikkies, flippers, molly1

How is ecstasy used?

Ecstasy comes in a tablet form and is usually swallowed. The pills come in different colours and sizes and are often imprinted with a picture or symbol.1 It can also come as capsules, powder or crystal.


Effects of ecstasy

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Ecstasy affects everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch)
The effects of ecstasy are usually felt about 20 minutes to an hour after it’s taken and last for around 6 hours.1

You may experience:

Feeling happy, energetic and confident
Large pupils
Jaw clenching and teeth grinding
Heightened senses (sight, hearing and touch)
Excessive sweating and skin tingles
Muscle aches and pains
Nausea and reduced appetite
Fast heartbeat
Dehydration
Heat stroke
Drinking extreme amounts of water (can cause death)1,2,3
If you take a large amount or have a strong batch of ecstasy, you may also experience:

Floating sensations
Hallucinations
Out-of-character irrational behaviour
Anxiety
Irritability, paranoia and violence
Vomiting
High body temperature
Racing heart beat
Fitting1,2,3
Coming down

In the days after ecstasy use, you may experience:

Restless sleep and exhaustion
Anxiety, irritability and depression
Difficulty concentrating1,2,3
The use of depressant drugs such as alcohol, benzodiazepines or cannabis to help with these ‘come down’ effects, may result in addiction to both types of drugs.

Long term effects

Regular use of a lot of ecstasy may eventually cause:

Colds or flu
Depression
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on ecstasy
Financial, work and social problems1,2
Mixing ecstasy with other drugs

The effects of taking ecstasy with other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Ecstasy + alcohol: increased risk of dehydration and consequently drinking too much water.4

Ecstasy + ice or speed: increased risk of anxiety and reduced brain functioning due to dopamine depletion. Enormous strain on the heart and other parts of the body, which can lead to stroke.5

Ecstasy + antidepressants: Drowsiness, clumsiness, restlessness and feeling drunk and dizzy.6

Withdrawal

Giving up ecstasy after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms should settle down after a week and will mostly disappear after a month. Symptoms include:

Cravings for ecstasy
Aches and pains
Exhaustion
Restless sleep
Agitation
Trouble concentrating
Anxiety and depression7


GHB:

What is GHB?

GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a depressant drug that slows down the messages travelling between the brain and body.1

GBL (gamma butyrolactone) and 1,4-BD (1,4-butanediol) are chemicals that are closely related to GHB. Once GBL or 1,4-BD enter the body, they convert to GHB almost immediately.2

GHB usually comes as a colourless, odourless, bitter or salty liquid, which is usually sold in small bottles or vials. It can also come as a bright blue liquid known as ‘blue nitro’, and less commonly as a crystal powder.2

Other names

G, fantasy, grievous bodily harm (GBH), juice, liquid ecstasy, liquid E, liquid X, Georgia Home Boy, soap, scoop, cherry meth, blue nitro, fishies.

How is it used?

GHB is usually swallowed, but sometimes it’s injected or inserted anally.3,4


Effects of GHB

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

GHB affects everyone differently, based on:

The amount taken
The strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch)
Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The following effects may begin within 15 to 20 minutes of taking GHB and may last for around 3 to 4 hours:

Feelings of euphoria
Increased sex drive
Lowered inhibitions
Memory lapses
Drowsiness
Clumsiness
Dizziness or headache
Lowered temperature, heart rate
Tremors
Nausea
Diarrhoea
Urinary incontinence2
The chemical composition of GHB is highly variable. It’s very easy to take too much GHB: the difference between the amount needed to get high and the amount that causes an overdose can be hard to judge.

Overdose

If the dose is too high, you might overdose. If you have any of these symptoms, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers do not have to involve the police.

Vomiting
Sweating
Irregular or shallow breathing
Confusion, irritation and agitation
Hallucinations
Blackouts and memory loss
Unconsciousness that can last for 3 to 4 hours
Seizures
Death3
Read more about overdose
Long-term effects

Little is known about the long-term effects of GHB use. However, it is known that regular use can lead to tolerance and dependence, which means larger amounts of GHB are needed to get the same effect.

Using GHB with other drugs

GHB + alcohol or benzodiazepines: chance of overdose is greatly increased.
GHB + amphetamines or ecstasy: enormous strain on the body and risk of seizures.5
Using GHB to help with the symptoms of the come down after using stimulants can lead to an addiction to both drugs.

Withdrawal

Giving up GHB after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. This is why it’s important to speak to a health professional when planning to stop using GHB.

Withdrawal symptoms usually start about 12 hours after the last dose and can continue for about 15 days.

These symptoms can include:

Confusion and agitation
Anxiety and panic
Feelings of doom and paranoia
Restless sleep
Muscle cramps and tremors
Sweating
Hallucinations
Fast heartbeat3
Sudden withdrawal from high doses can result in bowel and bladder incontinence and blackouts7.
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Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:52 am

Hallucinogens:

What are hallucinogens?

Hallucinogens (also known as psychedelics) can make a person see, hear, smell, feel or taste things that aren’t really there or are different from how they are in reality.1

Some plants such as magic mushrooms can cause hallucinations. Hallucinogens such as LSD can also be made in a lab.1


Types of hallucinogens

LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)

Also known as acid, trips, tabs, microdots, dots.

In its pure state, LSD is a white odourless powder. However, it usually comes in squares of gelatine or blotting paper that have been dipped or soaked in LSD. LSD is also sometimes sold as a liquid, in a tablet or in capsules.2

LSD is usually swallowed, but it can also be sniffed, injected or smoked.2,3

Magic mushrooms

Also known as shrooms, mushies, blue meanies, golden tops, liberty caps.

There are many different types of magic mushrooms. The most common ones in Australia are called golden tops, blue meanies and liberty caps. Magic mushrooms look similar to poisonous mushrooms that can cause a person to become very sick and can result in death.2

Magic mushrooms are usually sold as dried mushrooms, a powder or as capsules.2

Mushrooms are often eaten fresh, cooked or brewed into a tea. They are sometimes mixed with tobacco or cannabis, and smoked.2

Mescaline (peyote cactus)

Also known as cactus, cactus buttons, cactus joint, mesc, mescal.

Mescaline is the active ingredient of the peyote cactus plant. It is also known to be made synthetically in a lab.4

In its pure form, mescaline sulphate is a white crystal-like powder. Synthetic mescaline can come in different colours. The peyote cactus contains ‘buttons’ that can be cut from the root of the plant, and then dried before eating or smoking them.4

Effects of hallucinogens

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Hallucinogens affect everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch)
The effects of hallucinogens can last for 4 to 12 hours and can be different depending on which type of hallucinogen is used. The following may be experienced during this time:

Feeling happy and relaxed
Seeing and hearing things that aren’t there
Confusion and trouble concentrating
Dizziness
Blurred vision
Clumsiness
Fast or irregular heart beat
Breathing quickly
Vomiting
Sweating and chills
Numbness1,2
Bad trips

Sometimes you can experience a ‘bad trip’, which are frightening and disturbing hallucinations. This can lead to panic and unpredictable behaviour, like running across a road or attempting suicide.

If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you are likely to experience negative effects of hallucinogens.1,2

Coming down

In the following days after using hallucinogens, you may experience:

Anxiety
Panic attacks
Depression1,2
Long term effects

People who regularly use hallucinogens may eventually experience flashbacks. Flashbacks are hallucinations that occur weeks, months or even years after the drug was last taken. This can be disturbing, especially when the hallucination is frightening.1,2

Flashbacks can be brought on by using other drugs, stress, tiredness or exercise and usually last for a minute or two.1,2

In addition to flashbacks, regular use of hallucinogens may eventually cause:

Psychological dependence on hallucinogens
Financial, work and social problems1,2
Using hallucinogens with other drugs

The effects of taking hallucinogens with other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Hallucinogens + ice, speed or ecstasy: enormous strain on the heart and body, which can lead to stroke.5

Hallucinogens + alcohol, cannabis or benzodiazepines: increased clumsiness and chance of vomiting.5

Withdrawal

Psychological withdrawal symptoms are more common than physical symptoms, but as hallucinogens are a range of different drugs, it’s not possible to be specific about withdrawal symptoms. People withdrawing from hallucinogens may experience:

Cravings
Fatigue
Irritability
Reduced ability to experience pleasure1,2


Heroin:

What is heroin?

Heroin is a depressant drug, which means it slows down the messages travelling between your brain and body. Heroin belongs to a group of drugs known as opiates that are from the opium poppy.1

Heroin comes in different forms, including:

Fine white powder
Coarse off-white granules
Tiny pieces of light brown ‘rock’1
Other names

Smack, gear, hammer, the dragon, H, dope, junk, harry, horse, black tar, white dynamite, homebake, china white, Chinese H, poison, Dr Harry1

How is it used?

Heroin is usually injected into a vein, but it’s also smoked (‘chasing the dragon’), and added to cigarettes and cannabis. The effects are usually felt straight away. The effects take around 10 to 15 minutes if snorted.2


Effects of heroin

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Heroin affects everyone differently, based on:

The person’s size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug (it varies from batch to batch)
You will experience the below effects, which will last for 3 to 5 hours:

Intense pleasure and pain relief
Relaxation, drowsiness and clumsiness
Confusion
Slurred and slow speech
Slow breathing and heartbeat
Dry mouth
Tiny pupils
Reduced appetite and vomiting
Decreased sex drive1,2
Injecting heroin and sharing needles may also cause:

Tetanus
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
HIV and AIDS1,2
Overdose

If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you could overdose. If you have any of the symptoms below, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Trouble concentrating
Falling asleep (‘going on the nod’)
Wanting to urinate but finding it hard to
Itchiness
Irregular heartbeat
Cold, clammy skin
Slow breathing, blue lips and fingertips
Passing out
Death1,2
Naloxone (also known as Narcan®️) reverses the effects of heroin, particularly in the case of an overdose.

Read more about overdose
Coming down

In the days after heroin use, the following may be experienced:

Irritability
Depression1,2
Long-term effects

Regular use of heroin may eventually cause:

Intense sadness
Irregular periods and difficulty having children
No sex drive
Constipation
Damaged heart, lungs, liver and brain
Vein damage and skin, heart and lung infections from injecting
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on heroin
Financial, work or social problems1,2
Using heroin with other drugs

The effects of taking heroin with other drugs – including over-the-counter or prescribed medications – can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Heroin + ice, speed or ecstasy: enormous strain on the heart and kidneys, and increased risk of overdose.3
Heroin + alcohol, cannabis or benzodiazepines: breathing may slow and eventually stop.3
Withdrawal

Giving up heroin after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms usually start within 6 to 24 hours after the last dose and can last for about a week – days 1 to 3 will be the worst. These symptoms can include:

Cravings for heroin
Restlessness and irritability
Depression and crying
Diarrhoea
Restless sleep and yawning
Stomach and leg cramps
Vomiting and no appetite
Goosebumps
Runny nose
Fast heartbeat1,2
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Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:52 am

Ice:

What is ice?

Crystal methamphetamine (‘ice’) is a stimulant drug, which means it speeds up the messages travelling between the brain and the body. It’s stronger, more addictive and therefore has more harmful side effects than the powder form of methamphetamine known as speed.1

Ice usually comes as small chunky clear crystals that look like ice. It can also come as white or brownish crystal-like powder with a strong smell and bitter taste.1

Other names

Crystal meth, shabu, crystal, glass, shard, P.2

How is it used?

Ice is generally smoked or injected and the effects can be felt in 3 to 7 seconds. It is sometimes swallowed (15 to 30 minutes to feel the effects) or snorted (3 to 5 minutes to feel the effects).3


Effects of ice

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

The effects of ice can last for around 6 hours, but it might be hard to sleep for a few days after using the drug.

Ice affects everyone differently, but effects may include:

Feelings of pleasure and confidence
Increased alertness and energy
Repeating simple things like itching and scratching
Enlarged pupils and dry mouth
Teeth grinding and excessive sweating
Fast heart rate and breathing
Reduced appetite
Increased sex drive3,4,5
Injecting ice and sharing needles can increase the risk of:

Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
HIV and AIDS
Snorting ice can damage the nasal passage and cause nose bleeds.

Overdose

If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you could overdose. If you have any of the symptoms below, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Racing heartbeat and chest pain
Breathing problems
Fits or uncontrolled jerking
Extreme agitation, confusion, clumsiness
Sudden, severe headache
Unconsciousness
Stroke, heart attack or death4,5,8
Read more about overdose
Coming down

It can take several days to come down from using ice. The following effects may be experienced during this time:

Difficulty sleeping and exhaustion
Headaches, dizziness and blurred vision
Paranoia, hallucinations and confusion
Irritability and feeling ‘down’5,7
Using a depressant drug such as alcohol, benzodiazepines or cannabis to help with the come-down effects may result in a cycle of dependence on both types of drugs.

Long-term effects

With regular use, ice may eventually cause:

Extreme weight loss due to reduced appetite
Restless sleep
Dry mouth and dental problems
Regular colds or flu
Trouble concentrating
Breathlessness
Muscle stiffness
Anxiety, paranoia and violence
Depression
Heart and kidney problems
Increased risk of stroke
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on ice
Financial, work or social problems4
Ice psychosis

High doses of ice and frequent use may cause ‘ice psychosis’. This condition is characterised by paranoid delusions, hallucinations and bizarre, aggressive or violent behaviour. These symptoms usually disappear a few days after the person stops using ice.4


Dependence

People who regularly use ice can quickly become dependent on the drug. They may feel they need ice to go about their normal activities like working, studying and socialising, or just to get through the day.8

Mental health problems

Some people who regularly use ice may start to feel less enjoyment of everyday activities. They can get stressed easily and their moods can go up and down quite quickly. These changes can lead to longer-term problems with anxiety and depression. People may feel these effects for at least several weeks or months after they give up ice.9

Mixing ice with other drugs

The effects of taking ice with other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Ice + speed or ecstasy: enormous strain on the heart and other parts of the body, which can lead to stroke.5
Ice + alcohol, cannabis or benzodiazepines: enormous strain on the body, and more likely to overdose. The stimulant effects of ice may mask the effects of depressant drugs like benzodiazepines and can increase the risk of overdose.6
Withdrawal

Giving up ice after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms generally settle down after a week and will mostly disappear after a month. Symptoms can include:

Cravings for ice
Increased appetite
Confusion and irritability
Aches and pains
Exhaustion
Restless sleep and nightmares
Anxiety, depression and paranoia7


Ketamine:

What is ketamine?

Ketamine is used by medical practitioners and veterinarians as an anaesthetic. It is sometimes used illegally by people to get high.

Ketamine can produce hallucinogenic effects, causing a person to see, hear, smell, feel or taste things that aren’t really there or are different from how they are in reality.

When it’s sold illegally, ketamine usually comes as a white crystalline powder. It can also be made into tablets and pills, or dissolved in a liquid.1

A number of clinical trials and studies are currently being undertaken to assess ketamine as a treatment for depression, early indications are showing good results.

Other names

Special K, K, ket, kitkat, super k or horse trank.2,3

How is it used?

Ketamine can be swallowed, snorted or injected. It is also sometimes smoked with cannabis or tobacco. The effects of ketamine may be experienced within 30 seconds if injected, 5–10 minutes if snorted, and up to 20 minutes if swallowed. The effects of ketamine can last for approximately 45 to 90 minutes.3


Effects of ketamine

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Ketamine affects everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch)
The following effects may be experienced:

Feeling happy and relaxed
Feeling detached from your body (‘falling into a k-hole’)
Hallucinations
Confusion and clumsiness
Increased heart rate and blood pressure
Slurred speech and blurred vision
Anxiety, panic and violence
Vomiting
Lowered sensitivity to pain2,3,5
Overdose

If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you could overdose. If you have any of the symptoms below, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Inability to move, rigid muscles
High body temperature, fast heartbeat
Convulsions
Coma and ‘near death’ experiences
Death2,3,5
Coming down

In the day following ketamine use, you may be experience:

Memory loss
Impaired judgement, disorientation
Clumsiness
Aches and pains
Depression2,3,5
Long-term effects

Regular use of ketamine may eventually cause:

Headaches
Flashbacks
Poor sense of smell (from snorting)
Mood and personality changes, depression
Poor memory, thinking and concentration
Ketamine bladder syndrome (see below)
Abdominal pain
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on ketamine
Financial, work and social problems2,3,5
Ketamine bladder syndrome

Large, repeated doses of ketamine may eventually cause ‘ketamine bladder syndrome’, a painful condition needing ongoing treatment. Symptoms include difficulty holding in urine, incontinence, which can cause ulceration in the bladder. Anyone suffering from ketamine bladder syndrome needs to stop using ketamine and see a health professional.2,5

Using ketamine with other drugs

The effects of taking ketamine with other drugs– including over-the-counter or prescribed medications – can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Ketamine + alcohol or opiates: lack of awareness of effects of the depressant drugs, which may lead to taking too much and vomiting, slowed breathing, coma and death.5
Ketamine + amphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine: enormous strain on the body, which can lead to fast heart rate.2
Withdrawal

Giving up ketamine after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms usually last for 4-6 days. These symptoms can include:

Cravings for ketamine
No appetite
Tiredness
Chills, sweating
Restlessness, tremors
Nightmares, anxiety, depression
Irregular and rapid heartbeat2
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Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:53 am

LSD:

What is LSD?

LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) is a synthetic chemical, made from a substance found in ergot, which is a fungus that infects rye (grain).1

LSD belongs to a group of drugs known as hallucinogens (also known as ‘psychedelics’). When small doses are taken, it can produce mild changes in perception, mood and thought. When larger doses are taken, it may produce visual hallucinations and distortions of space and time.2

Sometimes, what is sold as LSD can actually be other chemicals such as NBOMe or the 2C family of drugs (part of the new psychoactive substances). These can be quite dangerous, as their quality is inconsistent, plus the potential to take too much of these other substances can be fatal and a number of deaths have been reported due to people taking them.3

What it looks like

In its pure state, LSD is a white odourless crystalline substance. However, LSD is so potent that an effective dose of pure drug is so small it is virtually invisible. As a result it is usually diluted with other materials. The most common form of LSD, is drops of LSD solution dried onto gelatin sheets, pieces of blotting paper or sugar cubes, which release the drug when they are swallowed.2 LSD is also sometimes sold as a liquid, in a tablet or in capsules.

Other names

Acid, trips, tabs, microdots, dots, Lucy.

How is it used?

LSD is usually swallowed, but it can also be sniffed, injected or smoked.1,4


Effects of LSD

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

LSD can affect everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the drug (varies from batch to batch)
The effects of LSD usually begin in 30 – 45 minutes and can last for 4 to 12 hours.3 The following may be experienced during this time:

Euphoria and wellbeing
Dilation of pupils
Seeing and hearing things that aren’t there (hallucinations)
Confusion and trouble concentrating
Headaches
Nausea
Fast or irregular heart beat
Increased body temperature
Breathing quickly
Vomiting
Facial flushes, sweating and chills1,2
Overdose

If you take a large amount, the negative effects of LSD are more likely to happen. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Panic
Paranoia
Increased risk taking
Psychosis1
Bad trips

Sometimes you can experience a ‘bad trip’ , involving a disturbing hallucination. This can lead to panic and risky behaviour, like running across a road or attempting self-harm.1,2

Coming down

In the following days after using hallucinogens, the following may be experienced:

Insomnia
Fatigue
Body and muscle aches
Depression1
Long term effects

People who regularly use LSD may eventually experience flashbacks. Flashbacks are hallucinations that occur weeks, months or even years after the drug was last taken. This can be disturbing, especially when the hallucination is frightening.2

Flashbacks can be brought on by using other drugs, stress, tiredness or exercise and usually last for a minute or two.2

In addition to flashbacks, regular use of LSD may eventually cause:

Psychological dependence on hallucinogens
Financial, work and social problems
Using LSD with other drugs

The effects of taking LSD with other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

LSD + ice, speed or ecstasy: can increase the chances of a bad trip and can also lead to panic5
LSD + alcohol: increased nausea and vomiting6
Tolerance and dependence

Tolerance develops rapidly to the effects of LSD. After the third or fourth consecutive days of taking LSD, no amount of the drug can produce the desired effects. However, after a short period of abstinence (about 3-4 days) normal tolerance returns.2

Withdrawal

Taking LSD regularly does not appear to result in physical dependence but there have been reports of psychological dependence occurring.1,2 People withdrawing from LSD may experience:

Cravings
Fatigue
Irritability
Reduced ability to experience pleasure


Opium:

What is opium?

Opium is a depressant drug, which means it slows down the messages travelling between your brain and body. Derived from the poppy (Papaver somniferum), it was traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean and Asia. The Opium Poppy is one of the oldest plants in recorded history, with information dating back to 5,000 BCE.1, 2, 3

A milky exudate called latex is collected from the poppy, air dried and manufactured into a brown powder or resin.4 This latex contains a combination of active chemicals such as morphine and codeine.

What does it look like?

Opium is a sticky dark-brown gum with a strong odour. It can also be manufactured into a liquid, powder, or solid resin.5, 6

Slang names

Aunti, Aunti Emma, Big O, O, Black pill, Chandu, Chinese Molasses, Dopium, Dream Gun, Fi-Do-Nie, Gee, Guma, Midnight Oil, Zero.7

How is opium used?

Opium is commonly smoked, but can also be injected, swallowed or drunk.8 Raw opium has a bitter taste due to the alkaloid levels.
Ingesting and injecting opium may increase the chance of overdose. Some of the most common ways to take opium are to smoke it via a bong or a pipe or take it in the form of a pill.10

If injecting drugs there is an increased risk of:

tetanus
infection
vein damage.
If sharing needles there is an increased risk of:

Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
HIV and AIDS.
Effects of opium

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

The main effects of opium are exerted by its collection of alkaloids collectively known as ‘opiates’. Opiates predominately affect the functioning of the brain and spinal cord. The levels and potency of alkaloids in opium can be difficult to measure, as they vary between batches, area of growth and growing techniques.1

The effects of opium last for two-to-three hours, though this is dependent on individual characteristics of the batch. Tolerance to the effects of opium increases quickly.

Opium affects everyone differently, based on:

the person’s size, weight and health
Regularity of use
whether other drugs are taken around the same time
the amount taken
the strength of the drug (which varies between batches).
Symptoms of use include:

euphoria
relaxation
analgesia12
Opium and lead poisoning

Some opium has been found to be heavily contaminated with lead. The source of lead in opium is still unclear, though it is either thought to be a byproduct of processing or may be added to increase its weight at the point-of-sale.13, 14

Lead poisoning can have a serious effect on people’s health, can cause long-term organ damage or be fatal.

If you have taken opium recently, especially since early 2016, you should see a doctor and request a blood lead test.

Overdose

The alkaloids present in opium are well known to cause respiratory and cardiac suppression.15 Ingestion at high levels has been reported to cause severe suppression of heart function, coma and death.16, 17

Symptoms of opium overdose:

slow breathing
seizure
dizziness
weakness
loss of consciousness
coma
death
Coming down

In the days after opium use, the following may be experienced:

irritability
depression
Long-term effects

Long-term use can inhibit smooth muscle function in the bowel, leading to constipation. It can also cause drying of the mucous membranes, leading to dry mouth and nasal passages. Tolerance to opium is established quickly, and as a result, physical dependence may increase the chance of overdose.20

Regular use of opium may cause:

intense sadness
irregular periods and difficulty having children
loss of sex drive
constipation
damaged heart, lungs, liver and brain
damage to veins, skin, heart and lung infections from injecting
needing to use more to get the same effect
dependence on other opioids
financial, work or social problems21, 22
Mixing opium and other drugs

The effects of taking opium with other drugs – including over-the-counter or prescribed medications – can be unpredictable and dangerous.

Opium is commonly taken with other drugs such as cannabis and/or methamphetamine. Black is the mixture of marijuana, methamphetamine and opium, and Buddha is the mix of potent marijuana spiked with opium.23

Taking multiple depressant drugs can significantly increase the chances of respiratory and cardiac depression and overdose. Similarly, taking depressants with stimulants may mask the negative effects of either, also leading to overdose.

Withdrawal

Giving up opium after using it for a long time is challenging because the body must get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms usually start within six to 24 hours after the last dose and can last for about a week – days one to three will be when the worst withdrawal symptoms are experienced. These symptoms can include:

cravings for opium
restlessness and irritability
depression and crying
diarrhoea
restless sleep and yawning
stomach and leg cramps
vomiting and no appetite
goosebumps
runny nose
fast heartbeat.24, 25
Opium and the law

Federal and state laws provide penalties for possessing, using, cultivating or selling opium, or driving under its influence.

Opium statistics

Current statistic on opium use in Australia are unknown.
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Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:53 am


Oxycodone:


What is oxycodone?

Oxycodone hydrochloride belongs to a group of medicines called opioid analgesics. It is a depressant drug which means it slows down the messages travelling between the brain and the body. Depressant drugs do not necessarily make a person feel depressed. Other depressants include alcohol, cannabis and heroin.

Oxycodone is most commonly prescribed by doctors to relieve moderate to severe pain. However, there is increasing concern among medical professionals about the risks of using these drugs, particularly when they are used for a long time.

Under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), oxycodone is a Schedule 8 drug. Doctors must follow state and territory laws when prescribing oxycodone and must notify, or receive approval from, the appropriate health authority.

Some people misuse oxycodone to become intoxicated, which can result in serious side effects.

Types of oxycodone

Oxycodone comes in a number of forms including capsules, tablets, liquid and suppositories. It also comes in a variety of strengths.

Common oxycodone brand names

Oxynorm®️, OxyContin®️, Endone®️, Proladone®️, Targin®️.

Slang names

Hillbilly heroin, oxy, OC and O.

How are they used?

Oxycodone is usually swallowed but is sometimes injected or used as a suppository.

To prevent OxyContin®️ tablets being injected by people who misuse them, they were reformulated in 2014. The tablets are now resistant to crushing and become a thick gel when added to water. They also have controlled release properties, even as a gel. Read more about this change on the ReGen website.

Effects of oxycodone

Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug and follow your doctor’s prescription. Contact your doctor if you are concerned about the side effects of oxycodone.

Oxycodone affects everyone differently, but the effects may include:

Pain relief
Dizziness or faintness
Tiredness
Confusion and difficulty concentrating
Euphoria or negative mood
Restlessness
Blurred vision
Stiff muscles
Constipation
Dry mouth
Stomach ache and nausea
Difficulty urinating
Slow pulse
Excess sweating, flushing and itching
Mild allergic rash or hives (see your doctor promptly)1
Injecting oxycodone when misusing the drug may also cause:

Vein damage and scarring
Infection including tetanus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS
Deep vein thrombosis and clots causing loss of limbs, damage to organs, stroke and possibly death
Injecting drugs repeatedly and sharing injecting equipment with other people increases the risk of experiencing these effects.

Overdose

If you take a large amount of oxycodone, you could overdose. If you have any of the symptoms below, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police. If possible, have the medicine with you so the ambulance officers know what has been taken.

Chest pain or discomfort
Small pupils
Decreased awareness or responsiveness
Extreme drowsiness and loss of consciousness
No muscle tone or movement
Slow or irregular heartbeat1
Read more about overdose
Long-term effects

Regular use of oxycodone may cause:

Dental problems2
Swelling in the arms and legs
Mood swings
Reduced sex drive and decreased level of testosterone (males) and menstrual problems (females)
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Financial, work or social problems3
Using oxycodone with other drugs

The effects of taking oxycodone with other drugs can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Oxycodone + alcohol: increased confusion and clumsiness, and breathing difficulties.
Oxycodone + some antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors – MAOIs): delirium, convulsions, respiratory failure, coma and death.4
Withdrawal

Giving up oxycodone after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. This is why it’s important to seek advice from a health professional when planning to stop taking oxycodone, whether you have been taking it with a prescription or not.

Withdrawal symptoms vary from person to person and are different depending on the type of oxycodone taken. Symptoms usually last for approximately one week and can include:

Watering eyes
Runny nose
Uncontrollable yawning
Difficulty sleeping and severe restlessness
Hot and cold flushes
Pains in muscles and joints
Muscle spasms and tremors
Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting
Increased heart rate and blood pressure
Uncontrolled kicking movements3


Paracetamol:

What is paracetamol?

Paracetamol is a pharmaceutical drug, which is use to treat a number of conditions including:

Mild pain
Fever
Strong pain (when combined with codeine)
Colds and flu (when combined with antihistamines and decongestants)1
Some people misuse paracetamol by intentionally taking more than the recommended dose in a mistaken attempt to get high, or as an act of self-harm.

Paracetamol is usually swallowed and comes in different forms including:

Tablets
Capsules
Suppositories
Soluble powders
Liquids1
Other names

Paracetamol may also be known by its brand or trade names. Some common examples include:

Paracetamol, other names
Generic name Brand names
Paracetamol Dymadon®️, Lemsip®️, Panadol®️, Panamax®️, Tylenol®️
Paracetamol and codeine Panadeine Forte®️, Panamax Co®️
Paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine Mersyndol®️ and Mersyndol Forte®️, Panalgesic®️

Effects of paracetamol

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk – even medications can produce unwanted side effects. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Paracetamol affects everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
Side effects

The most common side effects of paracetamol are:

Drowsiness and fatigue
Rashes and itching1
Children may occasionally experience low blood sugar and tremors, and feeling hungry, faint and confused after taking paracetamol.1

Overdose

If the dose is too high or the recommended daily dose is exceeded, an ambulance should be called straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Overdose symptoms, listed below, usually only occur 24 hours after taking the drug. An antidote can be administered if the ambulance is called soon after taking paracetamol.

Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting
Liver problems
Seizures
Coma and death
Death from paracetamol overdose often takes a couple of days and is usually very painful.1

Long-term effects

Regular use of paracetamol may eventually cause the following effects. It’s best to discuss the side effects of long term use with a medical practitioner.

Tiredness
Breathlessness
Bluish tinge to fingers and lips
Anaemia (low red blood cell count)
Liver and kidney damage1
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JoshMain
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Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by JoshMain on Mon Sep 10, 2018 3:54 am


PMA & PMMA:


What are PMA and PMMA?

Paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) and paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) are stimulants with hallucinogenic effects similar to MDMA, which is the main ingredient in ecstasy.1 In fact most people who take PMA or PMMA think they are taking ecstasy. However, drugs sold as ecstasy may not contain any MDMA. They can be a mix of amphetamines, PMA, PMMA, ketamine, NBOMe, methylone or other substances.

This is potentially harmful as PMA and PMMA have more toxic effects (and are less euphoric) than MDMA. It also takes longer to feel these effects, so people may take another pill in the mistaken belief that the first has not worked, sometimes resulting in overdose. PMA and PMMA have been around since the 1970s1 and have been associated with a number of deaths over the years worldwide including in Australia. In 2012 and 2013 there was a spike in deaths directly attributable to PMA or PMMA in England and Wales.2

How are they used?

PMA and PMMA are usually swallowed and can be snorted or injected.

Slang names

Death, Dr Death, Pink Ecstasy, Red Mitsubishi, Killer, Chicken Powder and Chicken Yellow

Effects of PMA and PMMA

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any kind type of drug.

PMA and PMMA affect everyone differently, but effects may include:

Feeling alert and excited
Seeing colours and shapes
Heightened senses (sight, hearing and touch)3
Dry mouth
Teeth grinding
Increased sweating
Increased heart beat and blood pressure
Difficulty breathing
Irregular eye movements
Muscle spasms
Nausea4
Overdose

If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you could overdose. If you have any of the symptoms below, call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000). Ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police.

Kidney failure
Extremely high body temperature
Vomiting
Convulsions and seizures
Coma
Death4
High doses of PMA or PMMA are potentially lethal.

Read more about overdose
Long term effects

The long-term effects of PMA and PMMA have not yet been established but health professionals believe they may have similar long-term effects to ecstasy.5

Using PMA or PMMA with other drugs

Taking PMA or PMMA with other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, cannabis and some prescription medications such as anti-depressants (SSRIs and MAOIs) can be potentially fatal.4

Getting help

If your use of PMA and PMMA are affecting your health, family, relationships, work, school, financial or other life situations, you can find help and support.


Psilocybin:

What are magic mushrooms?

Psilocybin or magic mushrooms are naturally occurring and are consumed for their hallucinogenic effects. They belong to a group of drugs known as hallucinogens (also known as psychedelics). The key ingredient found in magic mushrooms is psilocybin. When psilocybin is taken, it is converted in the body to psilocin, which is the chemical with the psychoactive properties.1

What do they look like?

Magic mushrooms look much like ordinary mushrooms. There are many different types of magic mushrooms. The most common ones in Australia are called golden tops, blue meanies and liberty caps.2 Magic mushrooms look similar to poisonous mushrooms that can cause a person to become very sick and can result in death.

They can also come as dried material in capsules. Synthetic psilocybin appears as a white crystalline powder that can be processed into tablets or capsules, or dissolved in water.

How are they used?

Magic mushrooms are eaten fresh, cooked or brewed into a tea. The dried version is sometimes smoked, mixed with cannabis or tobacco.

Other names

Also known as shrooms, mushies, blue meanies, golden tops, liberty caps.

Effects of magic mushrooms

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Magic mushrooms can affect everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the mushroom (varies depending on the type of mushroom)
The effects of magic mushrooms usually begin in 30 minutes when eaten, or within 5–10 minutes when taken as a soup or tea, and can last for approximately 4–6 hours.2,5

During this time, the person may experience:

Euphoria and wellbeing
Change in consciousness, mood, thought and perception (commonly called a trip)
Dilation of pupils
Seeing and hearing things that aren’t there (hallucinations)
Stomach discomfort and nausea
Headaches
Fast or irregular heartbeat
Increased body temperature
Breathing quickly
Vomiting
Facial flushes, sweating and chills1,2
Overdose

The use of magic mushrooms rarely results in any life-threatening symptoms. If a large amount or a strong batch of mushrooms is consumed, the person may experience:

Agitation
Vomiting
Diarrhoea
Loss of muscle control
Panic or paranoia
Psychosis
Seizures
Coma3,4
Bad trips

Sometimes a person may experience the negative effects of magic mushrooms and have what is called a bad trip and may experience the following:

Unpleasant or intense hallucinations
Anxiety
Paranoia
Panic or fear1,4
Coming down

After ingesting magic mushrooms, delayed headaches may occur, which can continue for up to 2 days. After taking mushrooms a person may experience:

Exhaustion
Depression
Anxiety4
Long-term effects

People who regularly use magic mushrooms may experience flashbacks. Flashbacks are hallucinations that occur weeks, months or even years after the drug was last taken. This can be disturbing, especially when the hallucination is frightening.2 Flashbacks can be brought on by using other drugs, stress, tiredness or exercise and usually last for a minute or two.2

In addition to flashbacks, regular use of magic mushrooms may eventually cause:

Psychological dependence on hallucinogens
Financial, work and social problems
Using mushrooms with other drugs

Magic mushrooms + ice, speed or ecstasy: Can increase the chances of a bad trip and can also lead to panic4.

Magic mushrooms + some psychiatric medications: Mushrooms should not be taken by people on psychiatric medications as a relapse or worsening of the condition could occur.1

Tolerance and dependence

Tolerance develops rapidly with continued use. Discontinuing use for a week or so will return people to their normal tolerance level.2

Health and safety

The main risk involved with taking magic mushrooms is that some of them look very like certain types of poisonous mushrooms. So it is important to know what you are taking – if in doubt, do not take them.2

If you believe you or someone else may have eaten a poisonous mushroom do not wait for symptoms to occur, contact the Victorian Poisons Information Centre (Tel 13 11 26).

If the person has collapsed, stopped breathing, is having a fit or is suffering an anaphylactic reaction, immediately ring triple zero (000) for an ambulance.

For more information on poisonous fungi, including their identification and symptoms please visit The Better Health Channel.

Withdrawal

Taking mushrooms regularly does not appear to result in physical dependence but there have been reports of psychological dependence occurring.1,4

People withdrawing from magic mushrooms may experience:

Cravings
Fatigue
Irritability
Reduced ability to experience pleasure1,4


Tobacco:

What is tobacco?

Products such as cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and wet and dry snuff contain dried leaves from the tobacco plant.1

The main chemical in tobacco is nicotine, which is a stimulant drug that speeds up the messages travelling between the brain and body. It may be more addictive than heroin. Tar and carbon monoxide (a toxic gas) are also released when tobacco is burned, such as when it’s smoked.2

Electronic cigarettes (also known as E cigarettes) don’t contain dried tobacco leaves, but they may still contain nicotine.

Street names

Ciggies, darts, durries, rollies, smokes, fags, butts, cancer sticks

How is tobacco used?

Tobacco is usually smoked in cigarettes. It is also smoked in cigars and pipes.

Effects of tobacco

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

Tobacco affects everyone differently, based on:

Size, weight and health
Whether the person is used to taking it
Whether other drugs are taken around the same time
The amount taken
The strength of the tobacco and how much is contained in the product
The following effects may be experienced:

Feeling more alert, happy and relaxed
Coughing
Dizziness, headaches
Fast heart beat
Bad breath
Tingling and numbness in fingers and toes
Reduced appetite, stomach cramps and vomiting3
If a large amount of tobacco is taken the following effects may also be experienced:

Confusion
Feeling faint
Seizures
Fast breathing
Respiratory arrest (stop breathing) and death4
Some people believe that smoking ‘light’ or ‘low tar’ cigarettes is less harmful than regular cigarettes. However, there is little difference between the amount of chemicals inhaled by people who smoke ‘light’ cigarettes and those who smoke regular ones.5

Long-term effects

Regular use of tobacco may eventually cause:

Shortness of breath
Coughing fits, asthma and lung diseases
Regular colds or flu
Loss of taste and smell
Yellow, rotting teeth
Yellow finger tips
Early wrinkles
Back pain
Slower-healing wounds
Mood swings
Eye disease and hearing loss
Stomach ulcers
Difficulty having children (males and females)
Irregular periods and early menopause (females)
Difficulty getting an erection (males)
Cancer (in many areas of the body)
Stroke and brain damage
Heart attack and disease
Needing to use more to get the same effect
Dependence on tobacco
Financial, work and social problems4
Passive smoking

Passive smoking is when someone breathes in smoke from other people smoking. Passive smoking can cause many of the health problems listed above, so it’s important not to smoke near other people, particularly babies, children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and people with chronic respiratory conditions.6

Using tobacco with other drugs

The effects of using tobacco with other drugs – including over-the-counter or prescribed medications – can be unpredictable and dangerous, and could cause:

Tobacco + benzodiazepines: reduced effectiveness of benzodiazepines.
Tobacco + contraceptive pill: increased risk of blood clots forming.7
It’s important to check with a medical professional about whether nicotine might affect any medications you are taking.

Withdrawal

Giving up tobacco after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms usually start within 2–3 hours after you last use tobacco. The symptoms may last from a few days to a few weeks. These symptoms can include:

Cravings for a cigarette
Irritability, anxiety and depression
Restless sleep
Eating more and putting on weight
Trouble concentrating
Headaches
Coughing and sore throat
Aches and pains
Upset stomach and bowels8
You may still crave a cigarette for months and years after giving up. It’s important to ask for help if you need it. Call Quitline on 13 QUIT (13 7848).

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Re: Drug Facts (RESOURCE)

Post by Sponsored content


    Current date/time is Mon Nov 19, 2018 1:29 pm